Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving: A multi-level approach – Energy Policy



•7 housing-related lifestyle segments identified in 10 European countries.
•The 10 countries cluster in 3 regions with similar housing-related lifestyle pattern.
•Lifestyle segments differ significantly with regard to energy saving efforts.
•Lifestyle segments also differ with regard to energy saving innovativeness.
•Housing-related lifestyle mediate all effects of country on energy saving.


A new instrument for measuring housing-related lifestyle (HRL) is introduced and employed for identifying national and cross-national HRL segments in 10 European countries (N=3190). The identified HRL segments are profiled and the practical importance of HRL for everyday energy-saving efforts in the home and for the energy-consumer’s openness to new energy saving opportunities (i.e., energy saving innovativeness) is investigated. The HRL instrument’s 71 items load on 16 dimensions within five lifestyle elements. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the instrument possesses metric but not scalar (measurement) invariance across the 10 countries. Multilevel latent class analysis is used to classify participants to HRL segments and the 10 countries into regions with similar segment structure. The optimal solution has seven HRL segments and three country classes, which are profiled in terms of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts. However, these two behavioural tendencies vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments. The study shows that HRL segmentation is a useful tool for creating more targeted and effective energy-saving campaigns.

SOURCE: John Thøgersen, “Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving: A multi-level approach”, Energy Policy, Volume 102, March 2017, Pages 73–87

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