Exposure to experiences and to environmental stimulation has been found to play a critical role in the development of the brain and the central nervous system. The absence of such exposure, and stressful situations — especially chronic stress — are factors that delay the development of cognitive, social, and physical abilities. Low socioeconomic status (SES) may deprive those affected by it of enriching experiences and expose them to frequent stressful situations. This, in turn, may result in inadequate brain and central nervous system development, thereby triggering a process of cognitive and scholastic-achievement inequality. This literature review aims to illuminate the main mechanisms behind inequality in educational achievement — mechanisms that are rooted in economic inequality.
SOURCE: Shavit Y, Friedman I, Gal J and Vaknin D. “Emerging Early Childhood Inequality: On the Relationship Between Poverty, Sensory Stimulation, Child Development, and Achievement.” TAUB Center, June 2018.
Produced by the librarians at the Brotherhood of St Laurence in Melbourne, Australia