This article explores the global reach and the diplomatic work of the Black Consciousness Movement, one of the critical components of the broad South African liberation movement. It discusses the spread of Black Consciousness to various parts of Africa and the world, through its exiled membership. It also discusses various meetings and conferences with critical role players, the institutionalization of operations and the creation of important links. The paper deals with Viva Frelimo rallies. These are events that took place inside South Africa under the leadership of the Black Consciousness Movement following the coming to power of Frelimo in Mozambique. It also deals with the crucial invitation by the Jimmy Carter administration to the leadership of the Black Consciousness Movement in the 1970s. Finally it explores the institutional presence of the Black Consciousness Movement outside South Africa as well as the lack of unity across the liberation components.
SOURCE: M Andile. “The Black Consciousness Movement and the diplomatic offensive.” Journal of African Foreign Affairs, 2019.
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